Back in the 6th Century B.C., the Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu was already advising that the ideal form of attack would see you defeat an enemy purely psychologically, without landing a physical blow. Today, the information revolution allows for an unprecedented number of ways to influence and subvert other countries. But while theorists and practitioners across the world are experimenting in ways to weaponize information, for some, the term information war has gone beyond psyops (psychological operations) to become a grand myth which explains away the world. Indeed, one of the most damaging ideas an information war can plant in the mind of the enemy is the idea of an information war itself. Information war has long obsessed Russian geopolitical analysts looking to explain the failure of the Soviet Union. They assert that the country collapsed not because of its terrible economic, cultural and social policies, but because of information viruses planted by Western security services through Trojan-Horse ideas such as freedom of speech (Operation Glasnost) and economic reform (Operation Perestroika). Alleged secret agents in the Soviet establishment who posed as so-called modernizers, allied with a DC-dictated fifth column of anti-Soviet dissidents, supposedly oversaw the dissemination of these viruses. For a long time, such theories were not in the Russian mainstream. But as the Kremlin searched for ways to explain its losses in the 21st Centurysuch as the 2004 and 2013 Revolutions in Ukraine or the 2011 protests against Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscowinformation war became a convenient way to cover up for policy failures. In a 2012 article called Russia and the Changing World, Putin elaborated about how he perceives such soft powernamely, as a matrix of tools and methods to reach foreign policy goals without the use of arms but by exerting information and other levers of influence; a device used to manipulate the public and to conduct direct interference in the domestic policy of sovereign countries. He rejected as unacceptable the work of pseudo-NGOs and other agencies that try to destabilize other countries with outside support… Others were more specific. Describing the Arab Spring in a 2014 piece for The Military-Industrial Courier, General-Major Vasily Burenok, president of the Russian Academy of Missile and Artillery Sciences, wrote that In North Africa, the main aim [of the West] was to inspire a civil war and sow chaos. Meanwhile, in Ukraine, he claimed, Western colonels tried to reformat Ukrainian thinking during the Maidan revolution of 2013.
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The Sacramento Bee reports that the men are accused of billing the VA for specialty shoes costing as much as as $1,682 apiece, while giving the veterans “off the shelf” products. Anthony Lazzarino, the 66-year-old former chief of podiatry for VA health care in Northern California, and 58-year-old Peter Wong, 58, the founder of Sunrise Shoes in Sacramento, were charged Friday. A grand jury indictment says the six-year scheme started in 2009. Attorneys for both men said the charges were unfounded and they believe Lazzarino and Wong will be vindicated at trial. Copyright 2016 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed. Updated: Sunday, December 18 2016 9:17 PM EST2016-12-19 02:17:38 GMT The Brigham Young and Wyoming football teams will face off Wednesday night under the lights at Qualcomm Stadium. Sunday the BYU Cougars and Wyoming Cowboys kicked off the annual pre-game festivities by making separate visits to the San Diego Zoo. The Brigham Young and Wyoming football teams will face off Wednesday night under the lights at Qualcomm Stadium.
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